Tuesday, 28 December 2010

The TLS test

Mark Hypolite writes:

Back from Essen and talking to the game designers there I got a golden piece of advice on game design – the TLS test. A good game should make you Think, Laugh and Swear. I liked this a lot so I started analysing this test in the context of games that I had designed and played. The more I think about it, the more I think that it is a good, rough guide to whether a game works on every level. The quantities of each element vary from game to game, but I believe that they all have to be there. 


All games require an element of Thought even that is only a simple decision on each turn. Chess is the archetypal thinking person’s game – there is no luck whatsoever, it boils down to outsmarting your opponent. Depending upon your ability it can involve many layers of thought:
  • Remembering openings;
  • Analysing threats and opportunities;
  • Identifying a strategy;
  • Responding tactically;
  • Applying psychological pressure to your opponent;
  • Sacrificing pieces.
If Chess moves were random, it would be no fun whatsoever. Depending upon the type of game that you playtesting you have to decide what the correct level of thinking and random elements should be. As a generalisation there tend to be less random elements of heavily strategic games and more random elements in children's games or family games. You might also want to consider what type of thinking you want players to engage in; should it be the type of multilayered thinking typical in Chess; answering questions; creative thinking, business decisions or guesswork? 


The basic reason that we play games is enjoyment; however players derive enjoyment from games differently depending upon the game.
Chess is not usually about laughing out loud (in fact that could be humiliating for the loser) however, it provides the wry smile that comes from a well executed plan, spotting something that your opponent hasn’t seen, or simply winning.
Absolute Balderdash encourages players to make up silly and amusing stories, so that the process of playing the game can be very funny. Players often do laugh out loud.
Dixit uses beautiful pictures and encourages lateral thinking to create a pleasurable experience for the player.
When playtesting ask yourself:
  • whether the players are enjoying the game;
  • why they are enjoying the game, and;
  • if the reaction was the one that you as designer intended.  
Identify the trigger points in the game for the positive reactions. For example in Chess, taking a piece or placing a King in check are two obvious pleasure points. 


Swear is the most controversial: it has to be distinguished from a game making you sulk, cry, write a negative review online or demand your money back from the game shop.
In games, as in sport or in a movie, the payoff (scoring a goal, getting the girl etc) has to be balanced by risk (conceding a goal, losing the girl). You either win or lose.
The Swear Test measures something different, do you care whether things go right or wrong? The Swear Test measures your emotional investment in the game. People who support a football team are more heavily emotionally invested in the result than neutral observers. A neutral observer becomes more emotionally invested if he bets on the result of the football match. If you do not swear (or at least feel like swearing) when things go against you, ask yourself, how emotionally invested in the result are you? Why are you emotionally invested? Or why aren’t you emotionally invested?
Some things that create emotional investment:
  • Creating plans or strategies;
  • Rivalry with opponents;
  • Game characters;
  • A compelling story to the game;
  • Historical or fantastical themes;
  • Great art work;
  • Making money ;
When playtesting ask yourself:
  • whether the players are invested in the game;
  • why they are invested in the game, and;
  • how you can create more investment as the designer. 

I think the designer with the 'golden' insight was Andy Hopwood of Hopwood Games. He certainly follows his own design philosophy with his excellent 2-player game, 'Mijnlieff'. 
- Rob Harris (

Hi, for the record, this is indeed my approach to games design. Thanks for the article, I think you've hit the nail on the head with your thoughts.
For me the BEST games make you do all 3 AT THE SAME TIME! No mean feat.
Whenever I play any game I always watch for those moments when players are in "game heaven" and try to get a feel for what caused it.
The swearing bit can also be represented by phrases like "doh!" or a protracted "nooooooo", always best when followed by a small laugh of resignation. I even count a pulling of the hair or the "flop back into chair". It's a difficult one to explain but I think we all know what we mean.
-Andy Hopwood (Hopwood Games -

1 comment:

  1. Hello there,

    I'm a budding games designer. I'm learning that games can only mature as fast as they can be playtested, and so I'm very interested in joining your group, both to develop my ideas, and help others do the same. Are you going to meet again soon?
    Great blog idea,much appreciated.